“Hydroxyl” – research of optical radiation in the upper atmosphere and its resonance on anomalous natural and technogenic phenomena.
高度80-100kmの水酸基スペクトル（830-1040nm）と酸素原子スペクトル（557.7nm）をISSからリム観測 ベラルーシ－ロシアの共同プログラム「Kosmos-SG」(2004～2007年)の下、ベラルーシ国立大学(BSU)の研究所(NIIPFP)とロシア科学アカデミー地磁気・電離層・電波伝播研究所(IZMIRAN)が共同で開発 2013年にBSUから露エネルギア社に移送、打上げ準備を経て、2015年にプログレス補給船でISSへ移送予定
An earthquake can be predicted with an accuracy of a sniper (ONT.BY, 2012)
Сосенко Виктор Андреевич (Aerospace Research NIIPFP)The new spacecraft, developed by the Belarusian and Russian scientists is projected to be able to catch the glow of the atmosphere. And it will help accurately determine the epicenter of the underground hits.
Scientists believe that because of the processes that occur in the crust, gases and ions in the atmosphere are beginning to glow. This glow, and will point to the area and the epicenter of the earthquake. "Space Observer," will be placed in a special complex that dock with the space station. And it will examine only the glow hemisphere, where it will be night.
The unit will show an amazing accuracy at a distance of two thousand miles. It must withstand the rocking of the station and make a spectral picture of the atmosphere. Determines the earthquake, with an error in a matter of miles. Space conditions simulated in the laboratory, where the device has successfully passed the test. To work on the orbiting space observer will begin next year.
Belarus' geophysical catastrophe prediction gear to be installed at ISS (Belta, 15.07.2008) [rus]* Гидроксил МКС землетрясение
The Sevchenko Research Institute of Applied Physical Issues of Belarusian State University has developed a spectrophotometric set to forecast geophysical catastrophes. The gear will be installed at the International Space Station (ISS) in line with a scientific project Hydroxyl-ISS, BelTA learnt from Sergei Khvalei, research assistant of the distance photometry laboratory of the research institute.ISS-borne Belarusian module to monitor natural catastrophes (Belta, June 01, 2010)
According to the specialist, the first atmospheric emission layer with specific luminance is 80-110 kilometers away from the Earth. “Luminance intensity increases several days before a geophysical catastrophe. Bearing in mind this fact, it is possible to prevent its destructive effect and minimize the consequences,” the interlocutor informed. The research of the first atmospheric emission layer would help forecast different natural calamities including earthquakes.
The appliance of the Belarusian development at the International Space Station would help to study in detail spatial-temporal and spectrum features of the optical luminance of upper layers of the atmosphere. Long-term research will help prevent geophysical catastrophes as well as reveal tendencies of developing global climatic changes in the atmosphere.
The specialists of the Sevchenko Research Institute of Applied Physical Issues of Belarusian State University conduct research in the area of physics, radiophysics, mathematics, information science, acoustics, electronics and chemistry. R&D developments are pursued by more than 20 laboratories of the institute.A photo spectrum system designed by the A.N. Sevchenko Applied Physical Problems Institute of the Belarusian State University to monitor and forecast the development of natural and man-caused catastrophes will be installed at the International Space Station (ISS) soon, BelTA learned from Sergei Khvalei, senior research associate of the Remote Photometry Lab of the institute.Diagnosis of heaven (Respublika, 2010.6.18)
The system has been tested, packed and handed over to the space and rocket corporation Energia for launch. The cargo rocket Progress will deliver the equipment to the ISS in late June. The module will be installed in the Russian section of the station and will be used for researches into forecasting and monitoring various natural and man-caused catastrophes.
According to the source, the system will be used as part of the space experiment Hurricane. The module can localize dust storms, gauge the scale of pollution during emergencies at industrial installations and oil pipelines, and register the pace of spring snow melting borders. In addition, the Belarusian module will help research the speed of weediness in arable lands, track the man-triggered impact on the environment, and locate unprotected areas with rare plants.
The module was designed for Russia. Initially the data will be collected by the A.N. Sevchenko Applied Physical Problems Institute for primary number crunching and then will be forwarded to Russian scientists in Moscow.
The A.N. Sevchenko Applied Physical Problems Institute of the Belarusian State University performs researches in the area of physics, radio physics, mathematics, information technologies, scientific instrument-making, acoustics, electronics and chemistry in over 20 labs. Belarusian specialists are experienced in designing various kinds of equipment for the space industry. For instance, as part of the research project Hydroxyl ISS a modern spectrophotometric module for forecasting geophysical disasters has been designed.
Eugene KAZYUKINIn a kind of museum, with whom I was introduced to the head of the Department of Radio Physics Research Institute of Applied Physical Problems, Belarusian State University Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Professor Boris Beliaev, practically all the spectral instruments, created in his time here for the satellites and orbital stations "Salyut", "Mir", International Space Station. There is a new exposure and development. Particularly interested in the spectrometric complex for the space experiment, "Hydroxyl" on the ISS. If he shows himself well in the work, it will probably be made a breakthrough in the overarching problem: the prediction of earthquakes.On the underground storm ask the cosmos (Respublika, 2012.5.25)
Illarionovich Boris said:
- We have a lot of orders, we work directly with either the Rocket and Space Corporation "Energia", or with a number of Russian institutions, either as part of the Union program. Here we go now Union program "Cosmos NT." There we have two fairly large project. One of them concerns the glow of the upper atmosphere. Scientists have long noticed and theoretically proved that such phenomena are directly related to seismic processes, that is to earthquakes. And these processes affect the luminosity of the emission layers of the ionosphere at altitudes of 100 and 300 kilometers.
Before the earthquake there is tension in the crust, and these low-frequency electromagnetic radiation in any way disturb the ionosphere. As it happens, it's hard to tell, but the fact remains that the luminescence occurs. While on Earth, it is difficult to see: a lot of noise, the distance is large, the optical density is high. Therefore, it is best studied from space.
- That is not from Earth and from space will alert people of impending danger?
- There is hope. You imagine: thousands of square kilometers of the ionosphere glow over the epicenter of the earthquake. This happens a few days before the disaster. If someone informs Earthlings about it. But I should clarify: the glow is weak. And you can only find it on the night side of Earth. And it was recorded only in certain spectral ranges. What is more interesting: just before the earthquake, a decline of light, then a splash. That is, there are a number of data, which predict an earthquake. And we must learn to clearly identify them.
- Like anyone else involved in research?
- Yes, Americans, Japanese. The Russians took up this issue. They launched a ground tracking station: Sakhalin, the Kuril Islands.
- And when your unit will fly?
- Our spectrophotometric complex "Hydroxyl" was supposed to go into space last year, but for some reason it stuck. We have finalized and are now waiting in the wings. The complex became part of the new Russian multipurpose laboratory module, which will be launched next year. We already have it your job, your window.
- I have heard that the practice of doubt that the upper atmosphere glow before the earthquake.
- Yes, some studies have shown that during strong earthquakes and tsunamis in the ionosphere is strong does not always bright lights. While in the area of the Kuril Islands, even before a small earthquake, it is raging. The idea is that the stronger the earthquake, the stronger must be the effect. But it is not always the case. This is a multifactorial process. And to understand it all, we need experimental data. And it appears when the start of systematic observations of the cosmos and the Earth.
- Your complex, as you said, go into space next year, and fotospektralnaya system for the experiment "Hurricane" will fly there, if nothing interferes, in late June. Tell us about it.
- It was created under contract to RKK "Energy" and a number of Russian institutes. It includes high-resolution camera, a spectrometer and a computer that allows you to get more reliable information than using only the color photography.
That our system can? For example, the Russians are concerned about the Aral Lake. There's dust storms occur, and the wind rose is often directed towards Russia. At the same time zasolyayutsya large spaces. From the photographs we see that dust storm coming, but to estimate the concentration of particles, their composition, ie a physical characteristics, is difficult. And our "Hurricane" can provide such information. Can he identify and species composition of forests, which the Russians a big problem. Our device is also needed to determine the characteristics of environmental disasters, hurricanes. You can meet the challenges of the glaciers.
- I heard that your experiment, some jokingly referred to as the astronauts still "hunting with a camera." Why not?
- Because the astronaut takes the instrument in his hands, and all that he is interested, takes through the porthole.
- Boris Illarionovich over than it is now working your department?
- According to the Union State program "Cosmos NT", we develop another apparatus. Above it, we are working jointly with the Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation, Russian Academy of Sciences. A specific design of Radio-optical system for the space experiment "Diagnosis." We make optical part, the Russians - Radiophysics. This equipment will work out of Hermetic station. For what it is? There is a worldwide radio-physics systems, high-power radio antenna. There are five: two in America, two in Europe and one in Russia, in the Novgorod region. A powerful radio waves, directed upwards, is called the artificial glow of the upper atmosphere, which we were already talking about. This is done to study the ionospheric plasma.
In the photo: Prof. Boris Beliaev demonstrates new instruments for space research
Photo: Eugene KAZYUKIN
Dmitry Patyk, "P"Warn about the earthquake will help instruments designed by the Belarusian and Russian scientistsUnited Nations/Belarus Workshop on Space Technology Applications for Socio-Economic Benefits (UNOOSA, 2013)
Flying prototype of the equipment, which allows from space with high accuracy to predict the time and place of earthquakes preceding the increased emission of the ionosphere above the epicenter, had not yet left the walls of the laboratory, where he was born, and its creators talk about the possibilities of the instrument so confidently, as though he had long worked in orbit . Surprising here, though, nothing. Optoelectronic system was by this time a long series of tests on the ground simulation complex that researchers questions on equipment and techniques used by almost gone.
"Space Observer," taught not only to evaluate the slightest variations in the emission of gases and compounds under the influence of geomagnetic disturbances of the crust. It can also build up their own from the interference caused by sun, moon and star light, complicating the conduct of combat shooting swaying of the International Space Station.
Developed this spectrophotometric complex in the framework of the "Kosmos-SG" scientists of Aerospace Research Institute of Applied Physical Problems. AN Sevchenko Belarusian State University together with colleagues from the Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation. NV Propagation of RAS. Ideologues of the project, received the name of "Hydroxyl", were the Russians and Belarusians plan implemented. In 2013, BSU will give a complex physics of the customer - Rocket and Space Corporation "Energia", and in 2015 scheduled flight to the ISS Multipurpose Laboratory Module, which will include this equipment.
- As for the idea of predicting earthquakes, the relationship with the geomagnetic emission processes was established by scientists of the Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences - explains senior researcher at BGU NIIPFP Ph.D. in Physics and Mathematical Sciences Sergey Khvalei. - They are from the late 80s performed ground-based observations in the Baikal seismic zone and saw it glow, ever-present at an altitude of 80-100 kilometers, approximately 4 times increases over the next epicenter of the disaster a few days before it starts. At the same time and had the idea to develop a compact device for monitoring the ionosphere and send it into space. After all, on board the space station can control large territories.
However, watch out for the glow of the atmosphere from space is more complicated than the Earth. After all, if the terrestrial observer from the luminous layer is separated by about a hundred miles, the astronaut can not direct the lens unit straight down, as with a barely perceptible glow of ionized air equipment "catch" a reflection of a more powerful earthly illumination. We must therefore aim at the limb of the Earth, in the subtle glowing "eggshell" emissive layer above the horizon.
In this case, the distance to the object of observation is two thousand miles, that the narrow field of view and rocking the ISS orbital plane with an amplitude of 2 degrees makes the procedure of obtaining the spectral picture of activity is similar to a sniper shooting from a ship at sea shtormyaschego. Nevertheless, the software can not only keep a target the desired point, and calculate the location of the central part of the luminous zone, projecting it on the earth's surface, that is, determining the earthquake to within a few kilometers. (Well, here I am, after scientists began to talk about the shooting as if it had already carried out in space, and is not modeled on a computer simulator.)
The success of an upcoming project, developers have no doubt, and at international conferences have seriously discussed the possibility of organizing a planetary monitoring and forecasting of earthquakes, not only from the ISS, but also satellites. To implement the same ideas that need other equipment that can not work in the hothouse atmosphere of the ship manned, and in open space. And such a complex for the spectrophotometric experiment "Diagnostics" and produce scholars BSU. In this device gets into orbit later, but today he is almost ready, it remains only to experience it than will be engaged soon Belarusian artists and specialists project the Russian RKK "Energy".
However, the Belarusians living in a seismically quiet country, interest in both experiments, funded by the Union budget, the purely scientific, as they allow our researchers to keep in shape intellectual potential. In addition, developments in these projects and used to create devices that can bring direct benefits. An example of this - the space experiment, "Hurricane," in which our scientists developed and created in conjunction with Russian partners fotospektralnaya System (FSS) for monitoring and development of natural and manmade disasters. In July 2010, the measuring system was delivered to the ISS, and since August last year, all expedition to the station is carried out with the help of regular shooting. Some of the information, which is about three thousand of spectra and thousands of images, processing, and entered the Belarusian founders of FSS.
- Shooting at which a pair of runs in the camera and spectrometer, a much more informative than a simple photograph, but its practical use so far, as is the calibration, debugging technologies and techniques - explains researcher at the laboratory for remote metering, Anna Rogovets. - Over time, these data will be required of the economy, and especially useful in the liquidation of emergency situations that will bring tangible results. Our equipment does not exceed the level of the best modern hyperspectral system, but costs much less. It allows you to receive more information about the extent of damage to forests and agricultural crops, the dynamics of snow melt, the extent of floods, fires, droughts and other natural disasters, as well as the effects of anthropogenic pollution. By the way, the system can be used for air monitoring.
- Our fotospektralnaya system, having worked for six years, so well proven, that the corporation "Energy" is not made a single comment on her work and we had already ordered another copy - says the head of the department of aerospace studies NIIPFP BSU Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences Boris Beliaev. - The next step is the conclusion of new contracts with the same "energy" that will allow us to contribute more effectively to the improvement of the national system of Earth remote sensing equipment to work on future spacecraft. We also have extensive experience in creating equipment for air monitoring, and is now being debugged in the lab the next innovation - Aircraft multispectral system "AVIS". This system is a high spatial resolution, allowing time to take pictures, to the spectral and thermal imaging, is designed to provide land use planning, forecasting and evaluating the consequences of emergencies. So, yes, we need space. But not a single space we live.Aerospace Education in the Republic of Belarus S.V. Ablameyko,V.V. Ponariadov, V.A. Saetchnikov, A.I. ZhukBelarus, Russia, Peru to design nano satellite to predict earthquakes (Belta, 26.08.2014)Scientists from Belarus, Russia, and Peru will create a nano satellite that will carry out several experiments once it is in orbit, including experiments to assess the possibility of predicting earthquakes. The information was released by Head of the Center for Space Research Studies of the Kursk-based Southwest State University Valerian Pikkiyev, BelTA has learned.Box with a secret: Belarusian and Russian scientists have created unique instruments for the ISS (15 March 2015)
In his words, the new nano satellite will be created as continuation of the work on the Russian-Peruvian satellite Chasqui 1, which was launched into space on 18 August and is now in its orbit. A similar satellite will be the main module, to which two more modules of the same size (10x10cm) — the Peruvian one and the Belarusian one — will be attached. Each of the three modules will carry out its own experiments.
Negotiations are underway with Peruvian scientists, who intend to come up with a way to predict earthquakes using the radio waves that originate from the Earth’s crust and can be detected by a long-wave receiver in the outer space. “The Peruvians also suggest studying the low-frequency spectrum of radio waves in view of the earthquakes that happen very frequently in South America,” noted Valerian Pikkiyev.
In turn, scientists of the Southwest State University will carry out an experiment to study charged particles. The experiment will help understand correlations between phenomena on the Earth’s surface and those in the outer space. The Belarusian State University is also preparing its own research project. The Belarusian university has arranged a contest of student projects and proposals regarding experiments are available, said Valerian Pikkiyev.
The news agency ITAR-TASS earlier quoted Prorector of the Southwest State University Oleg Atakishchev as saying that it would take about two years to create the new nano satellite. A state-of-the-art system will be developed to launch the satellite from the board of the International Space Station. The satellite Chasqui 1 was launched manually by the cosmonaut Oleg Artemyev.
Kazakhstan may become the next partner in outer space studies of the Kursk-based university.
* Valerian Pikkiyev: "Small satellite - great prospects" (SWSU)Recently, a unique video-spectral system, developed and created in Belarus, was delivered to the Russian segment of the International Space Station by Progress M-25M cargo spaceship. It has already been tested in orbit.7th Nano-Satellite Symposium and the 4th UNISEC-Global Meeting (October 18-23, 2016)
Professor Boris Belyaev (left) and head. Yury Belyaev: Our equipment works on space.
Through the porthole, having sent the lens of the installation to one or another section of the Earth, cosmonauts Anton Shkaplerov and Alexander Samokutyaev conduct experiments in accordance with the program "Uragan". Its main goal is to study the processes and consequences of natural and technogenic phenomena and disasters. Professor Boris Belyaev, Head of the Aerospace Research Department of the Research Institute of Applied Physical Problems, where equipment was designed and manufactured, explains:
- The new system is designed for remote sensing of the Earth from space. It provides reception of color digital images of high spatial resolution and simultaneous reception of a set of spectral characteristics of those or other parts of the earth's surface. The device will allow monitoring of the environmental situation, monitoring the atmosphere over the cities, detecting emissions from industrial enterprises, monitoring the spread and movement of salt storms, and the contamination of snow cover around cities. You can also track oil spills, fires in the forests and so on.
How important such information is in the modern world, there is no need to say. Belarusian scientists and their Russian colleagues from the Institute of Geography of the Russian Academy of Sciences understood this a few decades ago, when the planetary consequences of man's technological impact on nature were not so obvious. The outstanding Belarusian physicist Leonid Kiselevsky became the founder of space spectrometry. Boris Belyaev is one of his disciples and followers. Under the guidance of the professor, a systematic approach was developed to improve remote sensing technologies of the planet. His faithful companions for many years are cosmonauts-fellow countrymen Vladimir Kovalyonok and Pyotr Klimuk. Thanks to the co-authorship of scientists and cosmonauts, for example, the SKIF spectrometer appeared. Boris Belyayev tells how it was:
- In 1976, Vladimir Kovalenok first flew into space, where he worked with our spectrometer. Returning, he asked to create a manual version of the device to take any pictures. The results of these filming formed the basis of a scientific thesis, which Vladimir Kovalenok successfully defended. We also worked closely with Peter Klimuk, Vitaly Sevostyanov, Georgy Grechko.
A precursor of the video-spectral system on the ISS was in 2010 a system of photospectral, also developed in the Aerospace Research Department of the Research Institute of Applied Physical Problems. It is still used by every Russian space expedition. A year later, to carry out the space experiment "Seismoprognoz", Belarusian scientists created a block of sensors installed from the outside of the ISS. Its task is to collect data on precursors of emergency situations - tsunamis, earthquakes, tornadoes. Professor Belyaev's workplace now contains a manuscript for another scientific journal published by the Russian rocket and space corporation Energia, which summarizes the results of the studies jointly obtained with these and other Belarusian instruments. Among its co-authors are Russian cosmonauts and scientists.
Part of the unique experience accumulated by Belarusian scientists was embodied in new instruments and technologies created under the aegis of the Union State in accordance with scientific and technical programs of space orientation. Department of Boris Belyaev is involved in the implementation of the third of them - "Monitoring-SG". Among the most important directions is the creation of equipment for ground calibration of instruments of the Belarusian spacecraft; For a microsatellite on the study of the upper atmosphere of the Earth in conjunction with the Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, the ionosphere and the propagation of radio waves of the Russian Academy of Sciences; For microsatellite BSU, with the help of which students who dared to conquer outer space, will be able to try their hand. These devices can already be seen in the office of Boris Belyaev. In appearance - inconspicuous boxes.Integration of the Belarusian Space Research potential into International Nano/Pico Satellite ProgramsCommittee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space: 2017 Sixtieth session (7 to 16 June 2017)
Vladimir A. SAETCHNIKOV, Radio Physics and Computer technologies Department, Aerospace Educational Center, Belarusian State University, Minsk, Belarus
Practical nano-satellite monitoring of ionospheric earthquake precursors
Masashi KamogawaContribution of UNISEC-Global to Capacity Building in Space EngineeringThe solemn opening of the Seventh Belarusian Space Congress took place in the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus 10/24/2017
R. Kawashima (UNISEC-Global)
Belarusian Space Related Projects in the Framework of Joint Space Programme “Monitoring-SG”
A. Belotserkovsky (Belarus)October 24, 2017 in the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus inauguration of the Seventh Belarusian Space Congress. The event was organized by the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus and the United Institute of Informatics Problems of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus.
"Hydroxyl" (Program "Kosmos-SG") (Institute of Geosphere Dynamics)The observations of the hydroxyl radiation in the wavelength range of 727-1103 nm at altitudes of 80-93 km and light green line of atomic oxygen (557.7 nm) at altitudes of 88-105 km to solve problems: identify long-term variability of the hydroxyl radiation and due to the structure of the atmosphere; the creation of an empirical model of the intensity of radiation depending on solar and geophysical conditions; the possibility of using the data for the prediction of earth-quakes and warnings of emergencies. Experiment: Hydroxyl (Tsniimash)
The code of the experiment: Hydroxyl The direction of the NIP: 2. Geophysics and near Earth space Name of the experiment: Optical observations of the state of the upper atmosphere to forecast geophysical catastrophes The purpose of the experiment: Developing evidence-based empirical model of hydroxyl emission and oxygen in the unperturbed atmosphere, suitable for long-term prediction of its state and signs of impending discovery of geophysical disasters. Description of the experiment: Space research kinetic mechanism of the hydroxyl emission and the base of the accumulated data to the ISS on the luminescence of OH(v) and O* can be the basis for verification, validation and refinement of an empirical model of hydroxyl and oxygen emission, which may make them suitable for predicting the intensity of luminescence for a given helio-and geophysical conditions. One of the main expected results of a study of the possibilities of earthquake prediction as well as some types of man-made disasters, through a set of geophysical equipment TBE "Seismoprognoz" and the simultaneous recording of the emission OH(v) and O* in the earthquake-prone areas. The novelty of the experiment: Measurements from satellites on such a program has not yet been conducted. To date, the satellite UARS (Canada, USA, France) is determined only by the intensity, the rotational temperature of OH bands (8.3) and height of the layer. In Russia, these studies were not conducted or are underway. On the territory of Russia and the former Soviet republics may exercise concurrent ground-based ground truth measurements, for example, in Zvenigorod at the Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP RAS). Scientific equipment: On-board spectrophotometer, "Hydroxyl"
The working spectral range of the registration of spectral images, NM - 830-1040
The working spectral range of the registration of oxygen luminescence, nm - 557.7
The spectral resolution is not worse nm - 0.8
The spatial resolution in height, km - 1.0
Field of view in the vertical, deg - 3
Focal Length Lens, mm - 135
The minimum value of the recorded emission, Rayleigh - 20
The time interval recording emissions from - 1-100
Power consumption, W - 50
Expected results: Simultaneous satellite measurements populated? Nnostey vibrational levels of OH (v) and the concentration of oxygen, as well as associated laboratory measurements and theoretical calculations? You will set the rate constants of kinetic mechanism of the hydroxyl emission, which will ensure the reliability of the measurement of aerodynamic and geophysical variables.
On the basis of the measured emission characteristics of OH(v) and O* will be available the following information about the atmosphere at altitudes of 80-100 km:
1. Height distribution of temperature.
2. Height distribution of atomic oxygen.
3. Planetary heterogeneity of these distributions allow the detection of global planetary waves, which penetrate to these heights from the lower atmosphere, as well as to investigate the influence of the underlying terrain - orographic effect.
4. Systematic measurements allow to identify trends in global climate change of the atmosphere and their relation to the evolution of solar activity and anthropogenic processes.
One of the most important expected results is to study the possibilities of earthquake prediction as well as some types of man-made disasters, through a set of geophysical equipment TBE "Seismoprognoz" and the simultaneous recording of the emission OH(v) and O* in the earthquake-prone areas.
The results are: Dates: The experiment is under ground training of scientific equipment. Implementation is scheduled for on-board MLM. Status of the experiment: Will be Organization Director: IZMIRAN Members of the Organization: NIIPFP BSU, Inc. RSC "Energia", TsNIIMash Supervisor: Kuznetsov Vladimir Dmitrievich Curator of TsNIIMash: Section KNTS: 4. Solar system Publications of the experiment: List of publications in the editing process. Last Update: 11.04.2012 History IZMIRAN (IZMIRAN)2008 Preparation ionospheric space experiments aboard the ISS RS ("Seismoprognoz-SM", "Molniya-Gamma", "Hydroxyl"). Spectrophotometric Complex SC (BSU) | Spectrometric complex geophysical and aerodynamic studies of the upper atmosphere SFK (BSU Product) Russian experiments on the International Space Station dedicatetd to Earth's Observations (Medes-IMPS) Integration of the Belarusian Researchand Development into InternationalMicro/Nanosatellite Programms, Space Economy in the Multipolar World, SEMW2011 CREATION OF SMALL-SIZE SPACE-BASED EXPERIMENTAL EQUIPMENT TO EXAMINE S (Hannover Messe 2014) Space Research IZMIRAN (Kuznetsov, 2015)
Soviet geomagnetism, aeronomy and solar-terrestrial physics, Eos Trans. AGU, 1969 Connection between night sky emission and seismic activity, Geologicheskikh Nauk, 1978 Seismic-activity effect in variations of the nighttime emission of the upper atmosphere of the earth, Akademiia Nauk Gruzinskoi SSR, 1984 Relationship between night airglow and seismic activity, Annales Geophysicae, 1985The results of photometric observations of the night airglow at the Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory at the time of near-by earthquakes are given. The intensity of the green oxygen line (lambda = 5577 A) was observed to go through a maximum several hours before the earthquake. This increase is proved by the statistical analysis of 400 small local earthquakes. The intensities of the red oxygen line (lambda = 6300 A) and hydroxyl OH bands had no distinct anomalies. The described phenomena may be related to an enhanced electron precipitation into the lower ionosphere induced by radioemission of seismic origin. 地震に先行する中層，上層大気の夜間放射振動の解析, Ｄｏｋｌ Ａｋａｄ Ｎａｕｋ ＳＳＳＲ, 1988地震に先行して,ある高度区間(発光層)での原子酸素,水酸基の放射現象が観測されている。本文は4個の大地震発生例について,標記放射振動のスペクトル解析結果,地震活動の影響による放射強度増加のメカニズムを考察した。線帯別の振動エネルギー増加の評価結果によると,最大は557.7nmで主震発生の数時間前に極大であった。地震準備期に発生し,上層大気へ浸透する低周波音との同時観測が有効である Manifestation of seismic activity in nightglow variations, Poliarnye Siianiia i Svechenie Nochnogo Neba, 1989 地震活動域上の電離層の光学的モニタ, International Workshop on Seismo Electromagnetics, 1997最近10年間に地震-電離圏結合の存在に関する多くの情報が入手可能になった。これは大気中での多くの過程、特に音響重力波との密接な関連に起因する夜間大気光観測と対応している(Gokhbergら、1995年)。夜間大気光観測の研究はコーカサス地域で何年も行われ、局所地震活動と関係する重要な大気光強度変動を統計的に示した(Fiskhovaら、1985年)。緑の酸素線λ=557.7nmおよび赤の酸素線λ=630.0nmが局地の地震活動に対して最も敏感であることが確認された。緑線の発光強度は、主な地震の数時間前また数時間後に異常に増加し、他方、赤線の発光は地震の1日前には並のフェーディングを被る。これらの発光の自然挙動、すなわち、季節的変動、太陽周期依存性などはとくに良く文献に記録されている。それゆえ、問題となる異常はバックグラウンドの変動に対し容易に識別できる。この事実によって、予備的調査結果を確認し、調査中のこの効果の統計的信頼性を増加させるために、地上設置の走査光度計による通常の夜間大気光観測を組織化することは有益である。同様の観測を将来のスペースミッションで低軌道衛星上において実施することは非常に重要である(例えば、Compass-MまたはDemeterプロジェクト)。 Russia and Japan Developing Satellites for Early Warning of Quakes and Flares, AMS Newsletter, Volume 20, Number 5, May 1999As currently designed, the spacecraft would carry an FM-4 stationary field magnetometer for measuring the components of magnetic fields; a hydroxyl spectrometer to measure the distribution and intensity of hydroxyl and atomic oxygen emissions; an infrared spectrometer to measure electric field density; a high-energy particle monitor, and a video-photo metric system to measure intensity and frequency of light discharge and atmospheric glow. The manifestation of seismic activity in 557.7 nm emission variations of the earth's upper atmosphere, Advances in Space Research, 2001 Antiphase OH and OI airglow emissions induced by a short-period ducted gravity wave, GRL, 2005This effect arises due to the time and temperature dependance of the OH excitation reaction, coupled with the linear polarization properties of vertically-standing waves. Development of Compact Optical Instrumentation for Studying the Earth Upper Atmosphere Emissions on the Board of International Space Station, ISRSE, 2005In the works (Nasyrov 1978, Fishkova et al. 1985, Toroshelidze et al. 1988, Fishkova et al. 1989, Korobejnikova et al. 1989) the analysis of nightglow characteristics in oxygen emission lines [OI] 557.7 and 630.0 nm, sodium Na line 589.3, and hydroxyl bands OH (8-3) were done for Central Asian seismic zone in connection with seismic activities. It was shown that during the period of preparing and evolution of earthquakes the disturbances in mentioned emissions of various temporal scales are observed. In particularly, essential increasing emission of [OI] 557.7 nm takes place for the day or two before earthquake with sharp decreasing in next day. The methodology and results of tests on the simulator spectrophotometric complex space experiment "Hydroxyl" [pdf], Modern Problems of Remote Sensing from Space, 2008 Calculation of the parameters of a spectrophotometric system for measuring airglow brightness in the upper atmosphere from space, Journal of Applied Spectroscopy, Volume 75, Number 1 (2008) Mesopause temperature perturbations caused by infrasonic waves as a potential indicator for the detection of tsunamis and other geo-hazards, NHESS, 2010 Mid-latitude airglow during heliogeophysical disturbances, Geomagnetism and Aeronomy, 2011 Electrodynamical Coupling of Earth's Atmosphere and Ionosphere: An Overview, International Journal of Geophysics, 2011 Scientific and technical cooperation with organizations of Belarusian State University of Russia in the field of study of Earth from Space [ppt], CIS countries: Integration, Development Potential and Legal Aspect, 2011
Processes of Relaxation in the Ultraviolet Band Spectrum by High Velocity Interaction of Exhaust Products on ISS (Relaksatsia-Groza (Relaxation-Thunderstorm)) (NASA)Spacecraft light, spacecraft bright. This investigation measures light-emitting phenomena, including those from spacecraft plasma and re-entry spacecraft fragments. Data are also collected on origin and development of global thunderstorm phenomena in Earth’s upper atmosphere, including elves, sprites, and jets. Some measurements reveal a splitting of oxygen atoms in atmospheric layers over seismically active areas where Earth’s tectonic plates converge. Overall, the experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of using UV spectral measurements to monitor natural and man-made global physical phenomena and geophysical conditions in Earth's atmosphere and near-Earth space. 「科学の大百科（大気光） (NICT) れいめい衛星MACリム観測による中低緯度域の夜間大気光の空間分布の研究 探求的試験研究3：大気圏発光現象の研究 (JEM-EUSO) （１） メソポーズ領域の大気温度の観測（立教大学）メソポーズ領域（Ｍｅｓｏｐａｕｓｅ Ｒｅｇｉｏｎ）は高度９０ｋｍ付近を指し、大気温度が最も低温の領域にあたっている。ただし、最近最低温度領域は１００ｋｍ付近にあるとの研究結果も出され、メソポーズ領域の定義も変わることが考えられる状況にある。この領域においてオゾンと水素原子の反応の結果うまれた水酸基（ＯＨ）がかすかな光（ＯＨ大気光と呼ぶ）を出している。太陽光はもちろん月明かりでさえもＯＨ大気光よりはるかに明るい。このため月明かりの影響が少ない時期を選んで夜間に観測を行っている。ＯＨ大気光は可視域から赤外領域にわたり発光している。わたしたちは近赤外線領域で光るＯＨ（３－１）帯発光を観測対象としている。これまでに夏季に低温冬季に高温を持つ１年変動が観測されていて、地球規模の大きな大気の運動の結果であるとして理解されている。短い時間スケールでも変動し、これの原因は対流圏あたりでの小さなスケールの擾乱が上層へ伝播した結果であると解釈されている。